The 3-5-2 formation is a relatively recent team shape, especially when compared to historically popular systems such as the 4-4-2 and the 4-3-3.
It’s also one that tends to experience peaks and troughs in terms of popularity, largely thanks to its relative complexity and emphasis on positional discipline (particularly defensively).
But where did this system originate from, and what are the individual players roles included within the 3-5-2? Let’s find out!
Where Does the 3-5-2 Originate From?
Back in 1982, the classic 4-4-2 remained the dominant formation, but it was becoming increasingly apparent that sides with greater presence and physicality in the midfield would suddenly hold a distinct advantage over their rivals.
This was borne out during the controversial World Cup semi final between West Germany and France in 1982, when the latter nation fielded three narrow midfielders and an orthodox sweeper who regularly stepped out from the defensive line.
During the next World Cup in Mexico, we saw eventual winners Argentina become the first major side to adopt the 3-5-2 formation. Used to both dominate midfield and subsequently control possession, this system featured three compact central midfielders and saw the talismanic Diego Maradona regularly drop back from his split striker role.
At times, this created a fluid 3-6-1 system, while the formation could adjust to a 5-4-1 when the side was out of possession.
The system also enjoyed significant popularity through the nineties, with teams like Chelsea, Aston Villa and Arsenal utilising this regularly after the formation of the Premier League. This coincided with an influx of foreign players and managers, although the system became less effective during the noughties when teams began to deploy variations of the 4-3-3 shape.
However, iterations of the 3-5-2 have once again become popular in recent times, thanks largely to exploits of disciplined coaches such as Antonio Conte, Thomas Tuchel and Diego Simeone.
What Are the Player Roles in a 3-5-2?
The contemporary 3-5-2 features three central defenders, at least one of which is usually free to step out from the back and attempt to break the opposition’s lines (either by carrying the ball forward or executing long, diagonal passes).
While these three players will usually defend in a relatively narrow shape, those on the right and left of the defensive line will also have to cover the channels and tracks runners either side of the centre forward.
Then there’s the wingbacks.
These players are central to the success of the 3-5-2, as they’re responsible for creating both attacking and defensive width during the game. This means providing out balls and delivering service from wide areas when their side is in possession, while taking up deeper positions and tracking opposing wide players during defensive phases of the game.
While wing backs must be blessed with outstanding football intelligence, stamina and positional awareness, we’re increasingly seeing attacking players and wingers being used in such positions. This is ideal for sides that want to use the 3-5-2 offensively and press the opposition a little higher up the pitch.
The three central midfielders in a 3-5-2 will usually feature a single defensive pivot, whose job is to protect the back four and block balls being threaded into attacking areas. It’s unusual to see a double pivot used in this system, unless the wing backs are asked to play particularly high up the field.
The other two midfielders will sit either side of the defensive pivot, and may operate either as box-to-box players or creatives who want to penetrate the opposition’s defence. This can take the form of off-the-ball runs into the box or through balls, but the goal is to break the opposing defensive line and target the space in behind.
Up front, the classic 3-5-2 formation features two centre forwards. This is relatively unusual in the modern game, and can create an advantage and potential overloads in the final third when playing against two central defenders.
The composition of the forward line can vary, although it will typically deploy a target man who leads the attacking line and a quicker striker whose objective is to play on the shoulder of a centre-half and run in behind.
As Argentina showed in the 1986 World Cup, it’s also possible to play a split or deep-lying striker, who can roam in between the lines and even drop into midfield to create central overloads and help dictate play.
During offensive phases of the game, this system can often transform into either a 3-3-4 or a 3-2-5. Similarly, when out of possession, teams can drop back into a 5-3-2 or 5-4-1 formation, creating significant defensive and offensive strength at different phases of the game.
The Last Word
Antonio Conte’s expert use of the 3-5-2 and 3-4-3 formation has really helped to popularise these systems once again, while the Italian has also been known to successfully transform orthodox wide players into wing backs (such as Victor Moses and Ivan Perisic).
Tuchel and Simeone have also introduced iterations of this system at Chelsea and Athletic Madrid respectively, utilising the unique attributes of the formation to maintain structured possession and create compact defensive shapes during transitions.
Certainly, the 3-5-2 remains a popular and highly effective formation, albeit one that’s vulnerable to overloads in wide areas and against teams that play with genuine wingers and attacking midfielders.